The third layer and category is BIG DATA which represents stakeholders who provide infrastructure and services for the generation, collection, and analysis of data. The role of these stakeholders is to assist in the generation of insights using data and analytics.

The fifth layer and category represents ACADEMIA. This category consists of a variety of academic stakeholders that conduct research and provide innovative findings across a wide range of subject areas.

The sixth and final layer of the network is GOVERNMENT which provides regulatory and incentive frameworks. The layered design for the diagram was used to represent the levels of influence within the RECODE network and the effect that various categories of stakeholders have on one another. Changes in lower layers have significant influence and can cause abrupt change in layers above. For example, changes in government policy can have significant effects on all of the stakeholders in the above layers. Feedback effects also occur in which innovation in the layers above have influence on the layers below. However, this influence has more of a trickle down effect and occurs at a much slower rate.

The fourth layer of the network map is NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS. This category represents stakeholders that provide a bridge between academia and industry. The role of these stakeholders is to transition knowledge generated through academic research into real practice.

The second layer of the RECODE network represents the category of BUSINESS STRATEGY. This category represents a wide range of stakeholders that directly support supply chain entities. The roles of these stakeholders include strategic and operation support, brand and marketing management, and business model innovation.

The SUPPLY CHAIN category is sub-divided into subcategories of resources input, manufacture, logistics, retail and end of life / use.

The role of stakeholders in these sub-categories are described below.


  • RESOURCE INPUT: stakeholders that perform resource extraction and raw material processing.

  • MANUFACTURE: stakeholders that perform sub-assembly manufacture, product manufacture, and design and product development.

  • LOGISTICS: stakeholders that provide distribution across the supply chain.

  • RETAIL: stakeholders that provide a point of connection, in-store or online, between product manufacturers and consumers.

  • END OF LIFE/USE: stakeholders that provide resource management for products that have reached their end of life or end of use. Increasingly these entities will shift to also providing the resource input into the supply chain.

The RECODE Network map was developed to provide a visual representation of various network stakeholders and the general relationships that exist between them. To demonstrate these relationships visually, a layered diagram of concentric circles was developed to describe the different categories of stakeholders based on their role.

RECODE Network Map

The Network map went through several iterations over the course of the project. Each iteration was tested by plotting stakeholders in within the various categories. Some stakeholders can be mapped in multiple categories. Cisco, for instance, is located in both big data and manufacture. Roles of stakeholders were first identified through online research and the engagement interviews. The Network map provided a deeper understanding of the stakeholders involved and provided an understanding to the various motivations, requirements, and interests.

The top layer and category of the network map is represented by a typical supply chain. All of the supply chain entities described below exist in our current centralised manufacturing system. However, the importance of access to material input in RdM systems may result in a more cyclical system in which material that reaches the end of its life will become material input for the next generation of production. As a result the RECODE network is represented as a series of stacked circular layers.